According to “Wikipedia Readership Survey 2011”, the average age of Wikipedia readers is 36, with a rough parity between genders. Almost half of Wikipedia readers visit the site more than five times a month, and a similar number of readers specifically look for Wikipedia in search engine results. About 47 percent of Wikipedia readers do not realize that Wikipedia is a non-profit organization. Wikipedia Zero was an initiative of the Wikimedia Foundation to expand the reach of the encyclopedia to the developing countries. Bloomberg Businessweek reported in July 2014 that Google’s Android mobile apps have dominated the largest share of global smartphone shipments for 2013 with 78.6% of market share over their next closest competitor in iOS with 15.2% of the market.

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However, during the 1950s and 1960s the Asian countries, like Taiwan and South Korea, started focusing their development outward, resulting in an export-led growth strategy. Many of the Latin American countries continued with import substitution industrialization, just expanding its scope. Some have pointed out that because of the success of the Asian countries, especially Taiwan and South Korea, export-led growth should be considered the best strategy to promote development. orientation trade In addition, a recent mathematical study shows that export-led growth is where wage growth is repressed and linked to the productivity growth of non-tradable goods in a country with under-valued currency. In such a country, the productivity growth of export goods is greater than the proportional wage growth and the productivity growth of non-tradable goods. Thus, export price decreases in the export-led growth country and makes it more competitive in international trade.

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The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation, illustrations of zoophilia, and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles. Several studies have shown that most of the Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in 2008 showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female. Because of this, universities throughout the United States tried to encourage females to become Wikipedia contributors. Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown, gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.

Scholarly articles tend to be long and use academic language that may be difficult to understand. The College System of Tennessee, Governed by the Tennessee Board of Regents , is Tennessee’s largest higher education system, governing 40 post-secondary educational institutions with over 200 teaching locations. The TBR system includes 13 community colleges, 27 colleges of applied technology, and TN eCampus, providing programs to students across the state, country, and world. We explore whether imports and exports affect industry employment differently based on the industry’s trade orientation. Effects of trade are examined for both production and non-production employment using data for digit manufacturing industries, classified by the North American Industrial Classification System , and 116 trading partners that span the years 1972 to 2001.

Wikimedia Foundation And Wikimedia Movement Affiliates

Planning and funding for the PCL were approved in 1972, a construction contract was awarded in early 1974 to Stokes Construction Company, and the facility was opened to the public in 1977. The Perry–Castañeda Library is named for two former University professors, forex trading Ervin S. Perry and Carlos E. Castañeda. Professor Perry was the first African American to be appointed to the academic rank of professor and Professor Castañeda played a central role in the early development of the Benson Latin American Collection.

The Annette Green/Fragrance Foundation Laboratory is an environment for the study of fragrance development. Seventeen majors are offered through the School of Art and Design, and ten through the Jay and Patty Baker School of Business and Technology leading to the A.A.S., B.F.A., or B.S. The School of Graduate Studies offers seven programs leading to the Master of Arts, Master of Fine Arts or Master of Professional Studies degree. This article relating to library science or information science is a stub.

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System response and account access times may vary due to a variety of factors, including trading volumes, market conditions, system performance, and other factors. Designed for Oregon state-recognized apprentices employed in a trade or industry-related occupation. This course explores construction materials and methods used in the installation of limited electrical systems along with the NEC codes that regulate installation.

American journalist John Seigenthaler (1927–2014), subject of the Seigenthaler incident. In January 2013, Wikipedia, an asteroid, was named after Wikipedia; in October 2014, Wikipedia was honored with the Wikipedia Monument; and, in July 2015, 106 of the 7, page volumes of Wikipedia became available as Print Wikipedia. In April 2019, an Israeli lunar lander, Beresheet, crash landed on the surface of the Moon carrying a copy of nearly all of the English Wikipedia engraved on thin nickel plates; experts say the plates likely survived the crash. In June 2019, scientists reported that all 16 GB of article text from the English Wikipedia have been encoded into synthetic DNA.

Journal Protests

Primary-commodity dependency also links to the weakness of excessive specialization as primary commodities have incredible price volatility, given the inelastic nature of their demand, leading to a disproportionately large change in price given a change in demand for them. Scholars have claimed that governments in East Asia, nonetheless, did have the ability and the resources to identify and exploit comparative advantages. EOI has, therefore, Trade Bruker Corporation been supported as a development strategy for poor countries – because of its success in the Four Asian Tigers. This line of argument runs against heterodox (and particularly Post-Keynesian) analysis. There, the investment requirements for state investment, denominated in the national currency, are never operationally constrained; any claim about the “limited” ability of the state to finance expenditures in its own currency is rejected.

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In July 2009, BBC Radio 4 broadcast a comedy series called Bigipedia, which was set on a website which was a parody of Wikipedia. Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles. Law students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles as an exercise in clear and succinct writing for an uninitiated audience. Andrew Lih and Andrew Brown both maintain editing Wikipedia with smartphones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors. The number of Wikipedia editors has been declining after several years and Tom Simonite of MIT Technology Review claims the bureaucratic structure and rules are a factor in this. Simonite alleges some Wikipedians use the labyrinthine rules and guidelines to dominate others and those editors have a vested interest in keeping the status quo.

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See for example the Biographies of Living Persons Noticeboard or Neutral Point of View Noticeboard, created to address content falling under their respective areas. Revisions with libelous content, criminal threats, or copyright infringements may be removed completely. In 2015, French researchers José Lages of the University Trade Telstra Corporation of Franche-Comté in Besançon and Dima Shepelyansky of Paul Sabatier University in Toulouse published a global university ranking based on Wikipedia scholarly citations. They used PageRank “followed by the number of appearances in the 24 different language editions of Wikipedia and the century in which they were founded “.

These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate. Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semi-formal dispute resolution process to assist in such circumstances. To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums, or seek outside input through third opinion requests or by initiating a more general community discussion known as a “request for comment”.

For instance, on the English Wikipedia and some other language editions, only registered users may create a new article. On the English Wikipedia, among others, particularly controversial, sensitive or vandalism-prone pages have been protected to varying degrees. A frequently vandalized article can be “semi-protected” or “extended confirmed protected”, meaning that only “autoconfirmed” or “extended confirmed” editors are able to modify it. A particularly contentious article may be locked so that only administrators are able to make changes. A 2021 article in the Columbia Journalism Review identified Wikipedia’s page protection policies as “erhaps the most important” means at Wikipedia’s disposal to “regulate its market of ideas”. In November 2009, a researcher at the Rey Juan Carlos University in Madrid found that the English Wikipedia had lost 49,000 editors during the first three months of 2009; in comparison, the project lost only 4,900 editors during the same period in 2008.

  • Another example can be found in “Wikipedia Celebrates 750 Years of American Independence”, a July 2006 front-page article in The Onion, as well as the 2010 The Onion article “‘L.A. Law’ Wikipedia Page Viewed 874 Times Today”.
  • Some have pointed out that because of the success of the Asian countries, especially Taiwan and South Korea, export-led growth should be considered the best strategy to promote development.
  • The software incorporates programming features such as a macro language, variables, a transclusion system for templates, and URL redirection.

Wales is credited with defining the goal of making a publicly editable encyclopedia, while Sanger is credited with the strategy of using a wiki to reach that goal. On January 10, 2001, Sanger proposed on the Nupedia mailing list to create a wiki as a “feeder” project for Nupedia. Launched as a pilot in 1997 with fifty journals and expanded through 1998, Wiley InterScience provided online access to Wiley journals, reference works, and books, including backfile content. Journals previously from Blackwell Publishing were available online from Blackwell Synergy until they were integrated into Wiley InterScience on June 30, 2008. In December 2007, Wiley also began distributing its technical titles through the Safari Books Online e-reference service. Through a backfile initiative completed in 2007, 8.2 million pages of journal content have been made available online, a collection dating back to 1799.

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The project’s preference for cohesiveness, even if it requires compromise that includes disregard of credentials, has been referred to as “anti-elitism”. Bureaucrats name new administrators solely upon the recommendations from the community. Fewer editors become administrators than in years past, in part because the process of vetting potential Wikipedia administrators has become more rigorous. Wikipedia’s initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.

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